ZNA stands for Zip nucleic acids, which consist in oligonucleotides conjugated with cationic spermine units. This asset decreases the electrostatic repulsion between single strand nucleic acids (i.e. between primer/ probe and target DNA during annealing). As a result, ZNA primers and probes have higher affinity to their targets, compared to unmodified oligonucleotides. Moreover, the global charge of a ZNA oligonucleotide-oligocation can be modulated by specifying the number of cationic spermine moieties attached to the nucleic acid oligomer. The Tm of ZNAs increases linearly with the length of the oligocation. Therefore, it is possible to easily predict the melting temperature (Tm) of ZNA-DNA or ZNA-RNA hybrids.

Tmincrease ZNA
Structure of one single ZNA

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Specifications as ZNA-2
MW at 5'-end 318 g/mol
MW at 3'-end 897 g/mol
Specifications as ZNA-3
MW at 5'-end 1225.5 g/mol
MW at 3'-end 1305.5 g/mol
Specifications as ZNA-4
MW at 5'-end 1634.2 g/mol
MW at 3'-end 1714 g/mol
Specifications as ZNA-5
MW at 5'-end 2042.8 g/mol
MW at 3'-end 2122.5 g/mol


C. Paris, V. Moreau, G. Deglane, E. Voirin, P. Erbacher, and N. Lenne-Samuel. Zip nucleic acids are potent hydrolysis probes for quantitative PCR. Nucleic Acids Res. (2010), 38 (7): e95.

V. Moreau, E. Voirin, C. Paris, M. Kotera, M. Nothisen, J.S. Rémy, J.P. Behr, P. Erbacher, N. Lenne-Samuel. Zip Nucleic Acids: new high affinity oligonucleotides as potent primers for PCR and reverse transcription. Nucleic Acids Res. (2009), 37 (19): e130.

R. Noir, M. Kotera, B. Pons, J.S. Remy, J.P. Behr. Oligonucleotide-oligospermine conjugates (zip nucleic acids): a convenient means of finely tuning hybridization temperatures. J Am Chem Soc. (2008), 130 (40): 13500-5.

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