Zip nucleic acids (ZNA®) primers/probes have higher affinity to their targets, compared to unmodified primers/ probes. This is due to the fact that ZNA® are oligonucleotides conjugated with cationic spermine units, which decrease the electrostatic repulsion between single strand nucleic acids (i.e. between probe and target DNA/RNA) (1). As a result, ZNA® probes have been proved very successful in (Fluorescent) in-situ Hybridization applications (1; 2). To learn more about ZNA® technology, visit our Learning Platform!


1. Ban C, Ramakrishnan B, Sundaralingam M. Crystal structure of the highly distorted chimeric decamer r(C)d(Cggcgccg)r(G).spermine complex--spermine binding to phosphate only and minor groove tertiary base-pairing. Nucleic Acids Res. 22, 1994, 5466.

2. Trevisan S, Nonis A, Begheldo M, Manoli A, Palme K, Caporale G, Ruperti B, Quaggiotti S. Expression and tissue-specific localization of nitrate-responsive miRNAs in roots of maize seedlings. Plant Cell Environ. 35, 2012, Bd. 6, 1137-55.