Zip nucleic acids (ZNA) primers/probes have higher affinity to their targets, compared to unmodified primers/ probes. This is due to the fact that ZNA are oligonucleotides conjugated with cationic spermine units, which decrease the electrostatic repulsion between single strand nucleic acids (i.e. between probe and target DNA/RNA) (1). As a result, ZNA probes have been proved very successful in (Fluorescent) in-situ Hybridization applications (1; 2). To learn more about ZNA technology, visit our Learning Platform!

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1. Ban C, Ramakrishnan B, Sundaralingam M. Crystal structure of the highly distorted chimeric decamer r(C)d(Cggcgccg)r(G).spermine complex--spermine binding to phosphate only and minor groove tertiary base-pairing. Nucleic Acids Res. 22, 1994, 5466.

2. Trevisan S, Nonis A, Begheldo M, Manoli A, Palme K, Caporale G, Ruperti B, Quaggiotti S. Expression and tissue-specific localization of nitrate-responsive miRNAs in roots of maize seedlings. Plant Cell Environ. 35, 2012, Bd. 6, 1137-55.